Arnold-Chiari malformation are structural defects in the cerebellum. They consist of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum (the opening at the base of the skull), sometimes causing non-communicating hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. The cerebrospinal fluid outflow is caused by phase difference in outflow and influx of blood in the vasculature of the brain. CMs can cause headaches, difficulty swallowing (sometimes accompanied by gagging), choking and vomiting, dizziness, nausea, neck pain, unsteady gait (problems with balance), poor hand coordination (fine motor skills), numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, and speech problems.